Form & Positional Errors & their Measurement - IMTMA/Q012

Programme Background

Accurate parts reduce costs by cutting assembly time, maintenance and warranty costs; and improve products, leading to increased demand. While the design and construction of a machine tool is determined by its ability to hold the tolerances, all CNC machine tools are subject to positioning errors over time. Errors originate from natural wear and tear, crashes and failing or worn out moving parts. The geometric dimensions of the parts need to be checked for conformance to their specifications. If the geometrical requirements of components are not specified, controlled & subsequently inspected for having realized those requirements, they are most likely to pose problems in subsequent production stages leading to rejection. Geometrical or Form errors can occur as individual errors like Circularity, Cylindricity, Straightness & Flatness or as related errors like Radial & Facial runouts, Parallelism, Perpendicularity and Angularity. They may also occur as positional errors like Concentricity, Coaxiality or Symmetricity. It is important that geometrical errors are understood, interpreted, specified during design, controlled during manufacture and subsequently inspected for acceptance.

Focus Areas
  • Introduction and importance of Form & Positional errors
  • Circularity and its measurement
  •  Cylindricity and Sphericity
  •  Straightness & Flatness
  •  Radial and Facial run outs
  •  Parallelism, Squareness (Perpendicularity) & Angularity
  •  Concentricity, Coaxiality and Symmetricity
  •  Geometrical Errors and Surface Finish aspects

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